“To Die For” : A Study on the Disturbing Culture of Death in the Fashion World


An article submitted to the peer reviewed Scan Journal of Macquarie University takes a deeper look at the culture of death prevalent in the fashion world and studies “corpse chick” – the disturbing trend of posing models as glamorous corpses.

If you’ve been reading the Symbolic Pics of the Month series on this site, you are probably aware of the culture of death prevalent in the fashion world where death, violence and dehumanization are glamorized in photoshoots. This trend has been going on for years and is so disturbing that it caused outrage at numerous occasions.

The prevalence of death culture in fashion is so noticeable that it became the subject of an article in the peer-reviewed Scan Magazine of Macquarie University, a journal that analyzes media, arts an culture.

Here is the article in its integrity, complete with references. It is a perfect in-depth complement to the material that has been exposed on Vigilant Citizen for years.

To Die For: Skull Style and Corpse Chic in Fashion Design, Imagery, and Branding

By Jacque Lynn Foltyn


Is fashion something to die for? If one examines the content of fashion magazines, websites, videos, blogs, and fashion itself, the answer is a resounding “yes”. Death is a fashion star, used to sell clothing, accessories, brands, celebrity, magazines, style-based television programming and websites, and cross-media collaborative efforts. From Alexander McQueen and Ralph Lauren to Target and H&M, skulls, crossbones, and skeleton motifs have taken over fashion. Death is the darling of not only the fashion set but also of the masses – and their dogs, who wear skull bedecked cardigans and collars and lounge on skeleton embossed beds. In mainstream fashion and lifestyle magazines, models, actors, stylists, and socialites not only model skull style, they model ‘death’ itself, in gruesome pantomimes of murder, suicide, and eco-disaster. These “corpse chic” (Foltyn, 2008b, 2009) narratives are ‘ripped from the headlines’, but are also inspired by literature, music, cinema, and true-crime television genres; they are the basis for photos shoots for the reality TV program America’s Top Model. In the twenty-first century, and in more ways than one, fashion, to paraphrase Karl Lagerfeld, is not only “ephemeral” and “unfair”; it is “dangerous” (2006).

This article explores the fashioning of death as a mainstream advertising strategy, branding ploy, artistic expression and style trend, and examines its continuity with other representations of death, past and present. Since fashion is about consumption and conformity (Veblen 1902; Simmel 1957); reflects the preoccupations of contemporary culture; can be linked to specific historical and political contexts (Kaiser 1990); and speaks to the characteristics of modern culture itself (Blumer 1969; Baudrillard 1998; Evans 2003), it is argued here that skull style and corpse chic reveal current attitudes about not just contemporary society but about celebrity, beauty, fashion, and death. In turn, this article considers the following questions: Why is death a fashion star? Why are the fashion-obsessed, death-obsessed? Why are beautiful models and actors posing as cadavers? What does the popularity of skull style and corpse chic say about who we are? What does this trend of viewing and wearing death as a fashion statement say about our relation to the Grim Reaper? Finally, how can we reconcile living in a culture in which death is, on the one hand, denied (Becker 1973) and hidden away (Walter 1991), while on the other is a constant grisly presence in our information culture and entertainment society – even something that we wear?

To answer these questions, this article first considers examples, influences, and precursors of skull style and corpse chic, collected through historical research and qualitative methodologies (observation, interviews, content analysis, and visual sociology); and then moves on to a discussion of the larger socio-cultural significance of this deathly fashion trend.

Designing Death: Skull Style

In February 2010, Le Bel Age Boutique, a fashion store in San Diego, had an unusual window display: bone models (see Figure 1). “I call them ‘couture skeletons'”, said Valerie Lee Ferrari, the store’s proprietor. Ferrari explained that while her initial motivation in creating the plastic skeletons had been to celebrate Halloween, she had been influenced by the gothic movement and wanted to create a mannequin with “an edge”. Noting that the fan base for the couture skeletons had become so large that she was now manufacturing and selling them, Ferrari remarked: “I display them as a kind of “puppet theatre. They take on a life of their own. People ‘get’ them or not”. She drolly added, “Death as a style influence is very much in the air” (Interview February 3, 2010).

Figure 1: Couture skeletons, San Diego
Figure 1: Couture skeletons, San Diego

The year-round popularity of Ferrari’s couture skeletons is a sign of the contemporary importance of death as a design motif and creative feature of fashion media and marketing. The human skeleton has arrived in the mainstream world of fashion and is no longer a rare artistic expression. This was not the case in November 1995, when The New Yorker published Richard Avedon’s ‘In Memory of the Late Mr. and Mrs. Comfort’ (see Figure 2). A ghoulish, strangely beautiful marriage of fashion, art, commerce, and death, Avedon’s ‘ode’ featured supermodel Nadja Auermann and a male skeleton partner, dressed in designer fashions, and in a cinema-style narrative. It had scenes of courtship and of the couple copulating, arguing, sitting on toilets, and playing with a cadaver baby.

Figure 2: Richard Avedon, The New Yorker
Figure 2: Richard Avedon, The New Yorker

Now, Avedon’s use of skeletons as fashion models has worked its way not only into a San Diego boutique but a Spring/Summer advertising campaign for Alexander McQueen’s ‘Eyes’ (sunglasses), inspired by artist Damien Hirst (see Figure 3). In the June 2010 issue of W magazine, readers were confronted with a grinning human skull, with silver metal-coated teeth, wearing sunglasses, against a backdrop of pink, red, and white flowers.

03 mcQueen eyes
Figure 3: Alexander McQueen, ‘Eyes’

‘Fashion-y’ skull style is one of the most prominent emblems in contemporary fashion, and so commonplace as to have lost any shock value. The phrase ‘in fashion’ summarises an important but downplayed aspect of social life: the pull towards others (connection) and the push toward the new (Hemphill and Suk 2009). As a sign of both consumption as well as conformity, babies, children, and pets wear skull style, as well as ‘wholesome’ starlets like Jessica Alba. It is a design aesthetic for jewellery, clothing, accessories, baby slings and diaper bags, and is sold at high end and low end retail venues. Even Ralph Lauren, whose preppy ‘to-the-manor-born’ aesthetic seems far removed from death, has embraced the skull as a fashion muse. In 2010, Lauren sold skull-decorated pyjamas, slippers, bedding, wallets, ties, puppy collars and cardigans, and barware festooned with skeletons. Stylish jewellery is now fashioned from human bones, both real and simulated. While human bones, ashes, and hair have been worn as trophies, religious relics, objects of mourning, and memento mori (both historically and cross-culturally), today bone jewellery sits within the sphere of modern consumer society (Barratt 2005).

In the contemporary world of style, death is worn as a prop in the performance of fashion. Following Erving Goffman’s (1959) dramaturgical sociology and Judith Butler’s (1990) ‘performative’ arguments about the construction of identity, Valerie Steele, editor of Fashion Theory, commonly frames fashion as a staged performance. The presentation of self can be viewed as a series of theatrical acts, with the realisation of these presentations consisting of a front stage, where the actual act is presented for the audience, and a backstage, where the act is prepared, complete with a script, rehearsals, cosmetics, masks, and costumes. From whence did this wearing of death as part of the performance of the contemporary self emerge?

Keith Richards was wearing skull style decades before dogs and babies. The most irascible Rolling Stone, the iconic Richards is one of many rock stars who have shaped death as a fashion statement (see Figure 3). Richards, whose ironically named memoir Life (2010) reveals brushes with death through drug use, accident, and a debauched ‘devil-may-care’ lifestyle, has been wearing a widely imitated skull ring, created for him by David Courts and Bill Hackett, since 1978. Aware of his public image as a raging outlaw, ‘Prince of Darkness’, and seemingly indestructible dodger of death, Richards confesses that he has felt obligated to live up to this “necromantic” image. He writes: “I can’t untie the threads of how much I played up to the part that was written for me. I wear the skull ring” (2010: 364). Noting the “people love that image,” Richards believes they identify with the “raging Keith Richards” – so his typically middle aged, middle-class fans send him skulls “by the truckload” (2010: 365).

The bony remains of human beings have complex histories not only as memento mori in religious iconography but also as logos for street gangs, motorcycle clubs, and other outcast (often criminal) groups. The cult-like followers of The Grateful Dead call themselves Deadheads, and the punk and gothic movements have embraced the skull as a symbol. Such deathly images remain confrontational style statements when worn by members of subcultures to suggest, symbolise, or signal ‘outlaw’ status such as Richards’s, and alienation from, disaffection with, and rebellion against conventional culture. Among fashion’s many social functions is the expression of uniqueness and social deviation for cultural outsiders searching for ways to differentiate themselves from so-called ‘normal’ society (Simmel 1957). Fashion reflects symbolic meanings and social ideals (Barthes 1983) and designers search for new looks not only among elites (Veblen 1902) but on the street, and among members of subcultures, and marginalised and decadent individuals who are determined to make themselves appear distinctive (Simmel 1957). Fashion designers, editors, and photographers frequently respond positively to rule breakers, the counterintuitive, and the ‘out of the ordinary’ – and often think of themselves as such: what could be more confrontational and indeed provocative than the ‘wearing’ and staging of death?

Skulls and skeletons have rich cultural histories and symbolic meanings that provide them with other sources of deathly allure. Associated with Halloween, they were worn by the living in autumnal religious rituals (the Celtic Samhain and the Christian All Hallows Day) to disguise the self and scare away ghouls on days when they were thought to roam the earth (Rogers 2002). Death heads figure in military insignia and are worn by warriors as memento mori, to protect them from death, and to proclaim their status as violent, frightening dealers of death. The Death Head was a symbol of one branch of the Nazi SS. Hussar military uniforms, with their horizontal gold braids, gold chain loops, and decorative frogging that stretch across the chest, evoke the skeleton, and have been a prominent feature of the rock military style (Langkjaer 2010) and surface as popular style statements. The bony remains of human beings are props in pirate, vampire, and CSI themed films, television shows and video games, and figure in the tie-in merchandise worn by fans of these genres, such as the Pirates of the Caribbean skull and cross-bone T-shirts.

It’s not surprising that skulls and skeletons were objects of fascination for Alexander McQueen, a designer known to be interested in the more macabre aspects of popular culture and with outsider subcultures. McQueen’s designs nod to pirates, witches, warriors, and predators and their prey; and he staged catwalk extravaganzas oriented around Jack the Ripper and the 1969 film They Shoot Horses, Don’t They?, about a deadly dance marathon. Arguably the designer most associated with skull style and runway props, McQueen wove skulls into clothing and scarves; fastened death head charms to ankle boots; exhibited an aluminium rib cage corset cast from an actual human skeleton; and had runway models carry giant skulls and bones, drag skeletons from their feet, and wear masks that made them look like death heads. There are McQueen skull cuffs, bracelets, bangles, charms, earrings, rings, and tongue jewellery. The commercial value of the death head is such that Winged Death, one of McQueen’s most famous iterations of the skull, has become the subject of a trademark infringement suit filed by the Hell’s Angels Motorcycle Club (Alexander 2010). The fact that McQueen hung himself in February 2010 speaks to the performative role of death in his life, while those who knew McQueen well enough to write personal obituaries have noted not only a depressed state but also his obsession with death. On February 1, McQueen’s Twitter messages showed both a troubled state of mind as well as a revealing statement about his creative process: “From heaven to hell and back again, life is a funny thing. beauty [sic] can come from the most strangest of places even the most disgusting places” [sic] (Collins 2010). McQueen’s ‘genius’ and theatre of the macabre made him a favourite among fashion journalists and helped move skull style from the periphery to the centre of fashion.

There are periods when fashion embraces melancholy subjects (Lipovetsky 1993). In the 1990s, McQueen was one of many young conceptual, deconstructionist, ‘post-fashion’ designers (Vinken 2005: 35) whose work was “at the edge commercially,” focused on dark themes, and valued fashion primarily for its symbolic possibilities (Evans 2003: 5; Steele and Park 2009). Fashion can provide a window and commentary on social change (Veblen 1902; Simmel 1957; Crane 2000), and experimental designers such as McQueen, Martin Margiela, Hussein Chalayan, and Viktor & Rolf infused their designs with macabre imagery in response to social, economic, ecological, technological, and political changes that have created alienation, the distressed body, war, terror, violence, forced migration and a fear of instability, change, and death (Evan 2003). Some of those who wear skull style are no doubt responding to the tenor of our times, while others identify with the outsider, ‘dodger-of-death’ symbolism of Keith Richards. Others wear it as a memento mori, while others like Carlos wear the style more ‘lightly’, to project a slightly edgy look. Then there are those who seem impervious to the cultural meanings of the imagery; for them skull style has been drained of its symbolism and is worn simply for it trendiness, a response to the unthinking consumerism that Adorno (2002) argued modern capitalism engenders. Regardless of the reasons for wearing skull style, slavishly following trends is a prominent feature of affluent consumer societies (Baudrillard 1998, Lipovetsky 1993), and designers, editors, and marketers have now recognised consumer attraction to death.

Death by Fashion: Corpse Chic

In the mainstream fashion performance of death, ‘corpse chic’ represents a different kind of dead body narrative, in which supermodels and celebrities pose as cadavers. Corpse chic styles death with the flesh of the living rather than the bones of a skeleton and glamorises the freshly or decomposing ‘dead’ body, transforming the alluring living body into an alluring ‘dead’ one. Such imagery draws attention to its creators’ artistry, of course, and to the fashion site where the image is featured, but its goal is to sell the fashions modelled by the ‘corpse’. The assumption that a ‘dead’ body can now be an engaging fashion model is a perceptive one, as the viewer’s attention is grabbed at a time when actual and simulated death images have become a pervasive part of modern entertainment. There is interplay with the real death shown in the news, the simulated deaths of popular culture, and the contrived images of death currently seen in fashion, a theme that will be developed in more detail shortly.

For thousands of years death has been performed in theatre and dance, as cultural reflection and expression. It then appeared in photography, film, television, videogames and, more recently, fashion. Corpse chic imagery is commonly appropriated from amorous death scenes from literature, mythology, and art. Shakespeare’s suicides are a source of inspiration, for example, the Romeo & Juliet themed ‘Love of a Life Time’, by Annie Leibovitz for Vogue (December 2008). Here, the doomed lovers lie ‘dead,’ arms entwined – modelling McQueen.

Figure 5: Annie Leibovitz, Vogue 2008
Figure 5: Annie Leibovitz, Vogue 2008

In the 2010 Pirelli Calendar, Terry Richardson’s photograph of model Lily Cole as a modern-day Ophelia (from Hamlet) also pays homage to Shakespeare.

Figure 6: Lily Cole as Ophelia
Figure 6: Lily Cole as Ophelia

However it is the victim of violent crime, rather than the romantic suicide, that is most common in the performance of corpse chic. This model has typically suffered a heinous ‘death’ at the hands of a murderer, serial killer, sexual sadist, paedophile, animal, or even demented toy (Foltyn 2009). Consider the themes and images of four corpse chic pictorials published in W magazine between 2007 and 2009.

‘Honeymoon Hotel’, from July 2009, stars the nude or semi-nude actor Bruce Willis and his wife Emma, performing torture, dying, and death in a macabre sado-masochistic themed pantomime, photographed by Steven Klein and styled by Camilla Nickerson. Willis appears with spouse model Keiko and designers (including Michael Kors) in a series of images that involves masks, whips, metal fingernails, death heads, and an emergency vehicle.

Bruce and Emma Willis in W Magazine.
Bruce and Emma Willis in W Magazine.

In ‘Pinup’, from March 2008, one image features top model Lara Stone lying on a clear plastic coated bed, legs parted wide, eyes staring upwards vacantly. She is dressed in a pink Bottega Veneta tulle bustier and a Roberto Cavalli pink rooster vest: a fetishist’s fantasy. Set in a seedy motel, and photographed by Mert & Marcus, Stone’s body is foreshortened so that the viewer looks up her dress. The editorial copy of this shoot describes the models as “girls gone wild…in some rather compromising positions”, but there is no mention that the two models have been styled to appear dead.

"Pin Up", W Magazine, 2008
“Pin Up”, W Magazine, 2008

Perhaps the most disturbing tableaux from W is ‘Into the Woods’, from August 2007; this was also photographed by Mert & Marcus, and styled by Alex White. Dressed in various furs, Dutch supermodel Doutzen Kroes poses with stuffed toy animals that caress and menace her; in some images, she appears a cadaver-white, thumb-sucking child, who has been ravished by either the soft plush toys or an out-of-view paedophile. There is an implicit connection here to a sexual subculture called the ‘furries’, in which people dress up in animal costumes to have sex (Foltyn 2009).

 'Into the Woods', 2007
‘Into the Woods’, 2007

Corpse chic imagery such as these moves beyond the sensual to more dubious territory, a subdivision of dead body imagery I call “corpse porn” (Foltyn 2008b). Corpse porn highlights the simulated dead body’s sexuality in ways that go beyond the erotic; its themes are the vulnerability, debasement, decomposition, and sexuality of the un-mourned corpse, which it transforms in theatrical ways to titillate viewers with glimpse of sexual fetishes and perverse sexual subcultures.

On the other hand, serious social issues are occasionally addressed by corpse chic. Inspired by the recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, in August 2010 Italian Vogue staged model Kristin McMenamy as an oil soaked feathered sea creature, washed ashore, surviving (dressed in Ralph Lauren Collection), dying (spitting out oil) or dead, dressed in torn black nets. The story – ‘Water and Oil’ – was covered across the media, in ‘hard’ news, fashion websites, and the blogosphere. As the magazine’s editor Franca Sozzani explained: “in the face of this dramatic, catastrophic stalling, the images of Steven Meisel make up a precious reportage that delivers an artistic impact. Unforgettable images, created purposely to unnerve the viewer, capture the reality of the situation.”

"Water Oil", Vogue Italia, 2011
“Water Oil”, Vogue Italia, 2010

For the September 2010 issue of Harper’s Bazaar, celebrity stylist (and now celebrity) Rachel Zoe appears in a campy performance of corpse chic. The tongue-in-cheek, Hitchcock-style piece ‘Rachel Zoe: I Die’ has Zoe ‘killed’ by some of her favourite designers. She is buried alive in clothes by Michael Kors; Marc Jacobs shocks her with a hairdryer; and shoe designer Brian Atwood nails her with a stiletto. The layout is unusual for its frivolity and ironic, exaggerated sensibility, hallmarks of the camp performance (Sontag 1964). As a commentary on Zoe, it mocks her favourite expression (‘I die’), but also points to the increasing banality of corpse chic imagery.

"I Die", Harper's Bazaar, 2010
“I Die”, Harper’s Bazaar, 2010

Campy or serious, corpse chic imagery is a subcategory of a long tradition of the beautiful dead body in art. Sculptors, painters, photographers, filmmakers, video gamers, webmasters, and pornographers have used their imaginative minds to create ‘dead sexy’ looks to instruct, entertain, excite, scandalise and horrify (Foltyn 1996). Representations of dead beauties are an enduring theme in western art and pop culture, from the eroticised ‘dead’ bodies of Greco-Roman warriors to the crucified Christ; the surrealist images of Dada, Magritte, Bunuel, and Visconti; the photographs of Man Ray, Edward Westin, and Weegee; and the vampires of the Twilight trilogy. Today’s corpse chic imagery is indebted to the avant-garde and subversive fashion photographer Guy Bourdin, whose images of gorgeous ‘dead’ women (between the 1960s and 1980s) were embraced by clients known for their edgy aesthetics (Drake 2006) (See images athttp://www.guybourdin.org/under the Vogue caption). Corpse chic is indebted to film noir, b-grade movies, and television dramas, current affairs, and reality programming that focuses on violent crime and forensics (Foltyn 2009); as well as to contemporary art photographers such as Izimar Kaori and Melanie Pullen, whose installations merge high fashion, crime, and death. Pullen’s models, for instance, wear high fashion and are arranged in positions based on actual NYPD and LAPD crime scene files, photojournalism, cinema, and television.

As the ‘supermodel’ sex that is most sexualised and most associated with beauty and fashion, it was inevitable that most corpse chic would star women. In the history of art, young beautiful females have often been paired with skulls and mirrors to warn of the perils of vanity and the brevity of life, and have been associated with disease, death, and decay (Dijkstra 1983). Simone de Beauvoir (1974) and Mary Douglas (1966) claim that existential conditions have caused human beings to place woman closer to not only sex, birth, and dirt, but to beauty and death. Images of dead female beauties are a staple of contemporary visual culture (Britto et al 1997; Hughes 2006); indeed, the beautiful female murder victim has been a regular feature of newspapers since the early twentieth century (Cohen 1997). Today, the violent death or murder of any pretty (usually white) female can make an instant celebrity of a previously unknown individual (Foltyn 2005). Forensic science has supplied new ways to explore her demise in modern media culture (Foltyn 2008b). Mad Men, Desperate Housewives, and The Sopranos have all inspired fashion layouts in the era of media convergence, so why not CSI? It is a complex feat to grab the attention of sophisticated consumers who ‘buy’ fashion as an expression of self and who are bombarded with all matter of advertising messages, and ‘dead’ women remain successful ‘hooks.’ Fashion editors and advertisers ply consumers’ psyches with seductively unsettling death imagery and by linking objects not typically seen together, for example, a cadaver and a handbag.

Cultural critics have explored the connection between woman, beauty, and death. Bronfen (1992) argues that beauty, like death, has a quality of stillness. A photo of a supermodel can be viewed as a work of art, is statue-like, and be regarded as a still life (nature morte), that is, dead. In The Mechanical Bride, Marshall McLuhan wrote of modern capitalism’s assembly-line production of the ‘lifeless’ beauty: the showgirl, Hollywood glamour queen, and woman as cultural commodity and spectacle (McLuhan 2002). Symbolising the modern loss of individuality, conceptual designers such as Margiela, Chalayan, and McQueen have experimented with the idea of the female model as a doll-like generic commodity, and presented catwalk models as dummies, automatons, cyborgs, androids, and dead – to negate fashion’s emphasis on idealised bodies (Evans 2003). The word ‘model’ is a synonym for mock-up, replica, reproduction, and pattern: a simulacrum rather than ‘the real thing.’ In his essay on the uncanny, Freud (1955) argued that people develop lifeless doubles for positive, if delusional reasons, as a defence against annihilation and death. In the fashion world, the generic runway model is evocative of memento mori and can be viewed as a dead woman walking.

Since representations of death can be alluring and revolting, evoking a perplexing mix of fear, disgust, and desire (Freud 1952; Lacan 1992), it figures that those in the fashion world would fasten onto this provocative mix. Death, like beauty, attracts and repulses us, inspiring cultural awe, but also ambivalence, anger, and anxiety, so much so that beautiful victims have been offered as sacrifices in various cultural contexts (Foltyn 1996). When supermodels and film stars pose as chic corpses for today’s fashion media (such as Gwyneth Paltrow in W, August 2007; Kate Hudson in WSeptember, 2008), we can visualise what they might look like dead (Foltyn 2009). Is there a collective fantasy to see icons of beauty dead? An MGM executive thought so, noting that studio heads repeatedly cast Greta Garbo as a victim because the public liked to see her die (Paris 2005). Understanding this fascination with bringing the beautiful down to size through death, Lady Gaga, one of the most daring cross-media and fashion influences in contemporary pop culture, told Vanity Fair that she staged her own death in the Paparazzi video as a way of taking “something not fashion at all and [making] it fashion.”

I had this incredible fascination with how people love watching celebrities fall apart, or when celebrities die; I wanted to know, what did they look like when they died? Marilyn Monroe, Princess Diana, JonBenet Ramsey…I think about all these dead girls, these blonde, dead icons….So then I thought, ‘Well maybe if I show what I look like when I die, people won’t wonder. Maybe that’s what I want people to think I’ll look like when I die (Robinson 2010: 330).

What Gaga doesn’t mention though are the sexualised corpses of these dead beauties, a facet of contemporary dead beauty imagery that is staged for public amusement and aesthetic enjoyment, and covered as an infotainment phenomenon (Foltyn 2008b). Gorer (1955) argued that historically death and sex exchange positions as forbidden subjects. In the last decades of the twentieth century, we became accustomed to viewing overtly sexualised images of beautiful people in various pop cultural venues, including fashion. But as images of the sexual body became part of the public conversation, the corpse body remained socially acceptable only in more limited forums. In societies oversaturated with sex, death has become “the new sex” (Foltyn 2005: 29-30), the corpse and its simulated versions is the new fetishised body to be voyeuristically explored. The novelty of corpse chic is that it combines both culturally forbidden bodies, violating long held taboos about both death and sex. Just as with the popular CSI television franchise, where the sexualised ‘cadavers’ of young beauties are part of the visual formula, corpse chic representations amplify opportunities for voyeuristic exploration of the gorgeous dead body.

Refashioning Death

Skull style and corpse chic mine an evocative place where endings, beginnings, sex, beauty, death, fashion, and consumption meet. Fashion imagery and fashion itself – with its ‘birth’ and ‘death’ cycles, trends, and nostalgia – is by its very logic associated with dying and death. In his work about passages, Walter Benjamin observed that “fashion was never anything but the parody of the gaily decked-out corpse” (quoted in Bruno 2002: 147). For Benjamin, fashion plays a role in the human struggle against decay, by offering “sex appeal to the inorganic” (Bruno 2002: 147). Objects such as clothes, accessories, and mannequins, in Benjamin’s view, lure the living to “the realm of dead things.” In the nineteenth century, Marx was critical of the vagaries of fashion, blaming it for unpredictable garment and textile markets that impoverished common workers and created exploitative, dangerous work conditions that could kill them (Ross 1997), a critique that remains valid for some workers in today’s globalised fashion industrial complex. The very language of fashion culture is connected with death, beyond the “I die” of Rachel Zoe. Models are ‘shot’ by photographers and are featured in ‘shoots.’ People who dress fashionably are said to be ‘dressed to kill’ or to have ‘killed a look’, while particular items of fashion are ‘to die for’.

Beauty, one of fashion’s most important aesthetics, is also aligned with death. Freud (1957) claimed that beauty and death share a “hidden identity” and that beauty’s ephemeral nature augurs the transience of life, foreshadows bereavement, articulates a human attraction to death, and can be viewed as an aesthetic substitution for it. For Freud , “the goal of all life is death” (1952: 652). Similarly, Lacan maintained that a function of beauty is to present death as a “dazzling’ sight” (1992: 62), attracting us to our own demises. “For”, as poet Rainer Maria Rilke writes, “beauty is nothing but the beginning of terror we can just barely endure, and we admire it so because it calmly disdains to destroy us” (1992).

While death as a theme was once at the periphery of the style world, explored by avant garde photographers and by experimental fashion designers who staged and designed it to call attention to socio-political problems, it is now at its center. In Fashion at the Edge (2003), Caroline Evans posits that imagery of “death, decay and dereliction” from the 1990s stands for mutability “[rather] than for mortality” and is more about the “change, instability, and uncertainty” that came with “rapid technological and social transition than with death itself” (2003: 10-11). While Evans’ analysis is useful and extremely well-documented, it is now 2010 and more than ever, death as a fashion aesthetic is about death itself.

Since fashion designs and imagery are consumed, and fashion is about what’s ‘hot’ and registers the pulse of contemporary culture, the fact that deathly styles and images are mainstream style trends tells us something important about what is happening now. That is, a resurfacing of an interest in death itself. It is no accident that this ‘to die for’ trend coincides with the larger cultural fascination with forensic images of the corpse, both real and contrived, and interest in information about the dead bodies of celebrities and victims of war, terror, disasters, and corpse abuse scandals, all of which are beamed directly into our houses. While some find this trend appalling, others respond positively to this macabre imagery. The debate about the effects of violence and death as themes of popular culture is probably as old as the images that have been produced. Research has found that the violence seen on television evokes a variety of responses from viewers, from fear, acceptance, antisocial behaviour, the craving for more violent imagery, and desensitisation (Cantor 2000). Whether telling ‘an important story’ or commercially exploiting lurid public appetites for such imagery, representations of human remains have become major infotainment commodities and US exports (Foltyn 2008a). Information about the processes of dying, death, decomposition, and bereavement make bestseller lists and have also brought dying, death, and the corpse to the fore (for example, Mary Roach’s Stiff: The Curious Lives of Human Cadavers 2003; Joan Didion’s The Year of Magical Thinking 2005) (Foltyn 2008a, 2008b). So strong is the desire to see ‘real’ death that a plethora of websites devoted to dubiously acquired images of the dead and autopsied bodies of the famous have sprung up (such as eBaum’s World Famous Corpse gallery, at http://www.ebaumsworld.com/pictures/view/80709927/).

Death, as the boutique owner Valerie Ferrari observed, is “very much in the air”. Perhaps fashion imagery and styles are tapping into what Lacan (1992) called the collective fascination with death, allowing it to resurface from a historical graveyard where it had been buried as incompatible with the optimistic mood of modern capitalism (Aries 1974; Gorer 1955). Since fashion reflects the social zeitgeist, the emergence of a death-oriented style tells us something about our changing attitudes towards dying and death in postmodern societies where our relation to death is disjointed and is being redefined. Perhaps deathly fashion imagery is another example of how death, to paraphrase McIlwaine (2005) ‘has gone pop’: fashion’s skull style and corpse chic imagery helps bring death ‘out of the closet’, and reverses the historical changes that, over the past century, made it something to hide and disguise (Foltyn 1996).

The refashioning of fashion to include skull style and corpse chic reveals the underbelly of a culture progressively preoccupied with death, and with a paradoxical orientation toward the Grim Reaper. On the one hand, we entertain ourselves with death, peruse its imagery in fashion venues, and wear its symbols. On the other hand, we live in a period when death has receded from everyday life, is viewed as the ‘failure of a cure’ in affluent modern societies where it’s expected that one will live to be old (Aries 1974). Longevity is greater, infant and maternal mortality is lower, and people tend to die ‘invisibly’ in hospitals or hospices rather than at home. Many people have never see an actual corpsein person, including those of their deceased loved ones, preferring to celebrate their lives in memorial services, with no cadaver, casket, or urn present. Ours is an era in which many of have seen portents of our future skeletonised remains, through x-ray scans that reveal the interior of our bodies (Sawday 1995), and yet we are unclear about what happens to our ‘self,’ post-mortem, a source of very real fear in modern secular societies. While we are increasingly members of what Bogard (2008) called “the empire of the living dead”, where biomedical, genomic, and cloning technologies have made the divisions between the living and the dead more fluid, the fact is that modern medicine has not defeated death. Perhaps we look at images of death and wear its symbols as futile attempts to confront, ward off, and master death. Or perhaps our psyches crave acknowledgement of the reality of death, even as our society does not sufficiently acknowledge that each of us will die. In corpse chic, the ‘most beautiful’ among us – supermodels and celebrities – ‘die’, that is, model death for the rest of us, and serve notice that death is indeed the great leveller. Perhaps the ‘stillness’ of death (Bronfen 1992), seen in corpse chic and worn in skull style, is something that members of our frenetic time-poor culture seek. A multiplicity of explanations is necessary to understand the emergence in mass culture of these deathly fashion trends, as subcategories of the larger cultural intoxication with death, and to explain why we are attracted to, revolted by, and ambivalent toward it. Even the world of fashion registers this ambivalence. How else can we explain why death remains fashionable in the world of style, even as it claims its deeply mourned icons, muses, and stars through disease (Yves Saint Laurent, Herb Ritts, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Audrey Hepburn); old age (Francesco Scavullo, Irving Penn); or violence (Gianni Versace, Alexander McQueen, Princess Diana, John F. Kennedy, Jr., Carolyn Bessette-Kennedy and Isabella Blow)?

Do skull style and corpse chic matter in the larger scheme of human life? Well, yes. To a degree, everyone is a consumer of fashion, one of the most imaginative, productive industries in the global economy; in the US alone, apparel and accessories are responsible for several hundred billions of dollars per annum in sales, more than those for films, books, and music, combined (Hemphill and Suk 2009). Fashion is not only a business; it is a feature of popular culture. Fashion’s thematic content is important for understanding larger trends in mass society and who we are. The fashion world has merged with a globalised death culture and made skulls, skeletons, and simulated corpses chic. But as we naively wear or gaze upon these often beautiful spectacles of death, we may forget that one day death will come for us too, and its arrival won’t be a style statement.


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57 Comments on "“To Die For” : A Study on the Disturbing Culture of Death in the Fashion World"

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I’ve been in this subculture in the past as a model. I can tell you that this article is truer than you might think.

There are some truly sick and demented people in the fashion industry. And they’re being promoted, propped up, advanced, and funded. The talentless and ugly are backed for a reason.

And by ‘ugly’, I meant the ugliness of their souls and concepts, just to be clear.

You are right. There is a reason that the talentless and the ugly are being backed. They are a part of the Satanic elite and they are furthering its agenda, exactly as they are told.

Then you, of all people, should know perfectly well that this isn’t “in” anymore. Notice all of the references are from 2010. “Death Chic” is over.

It all stemmed from Witch-house, anyway, and who the f**k still thinks Witch-house is edgy?

Pitiful and ugly that death is well embraced in the fashion industry its no wonder why the talentless ones are gullible enough to promote such dark agenda

I think back to other periods when a strange fascination with death infused society and where violence was given a kind of beauty and it brings me to times where wealth inequality is high and the richest people are older than middle aged. When Evelyn Nesbit was enjoying the “Bluebeard’s Wives” photography trend in the very early, Edwardian 1900’s, where young women would push their heads through a cut out sleet in a white sheet, to mock a head that had been removed from a body by a violent man, she was also being passed around between a famous societal architect who was decades older than her and started violating her when she was 13/14 and the demented son of a dynasty family of wealth. It was a period of robber barons who did what they wanted and most of humanity was at their mercy. The trend of wealth combined… Read more »

Correction: “…there are just [not] enough diverse perspectives in the wealth community to result in energetic hopefulness…”

Absolutely fantastic analysis, Rose, thanks for sharing!

Astor Von Vanderbilt III

Very well put, I must say!

Never read bigger BS, sorry but I have to say it. The welathiest people on earth are not older than middle aged. Most of the wealthiest people on earth today/now are very young. Today only sick idiots become rich and the sick idiots are in the fashion industry, music business, movie industry – rappers rapping about voiolence and murder, designers and model promoting death and movie/tv starspromoting filth and death and life with no morals – these people are among the wealthiest today and are mostky super young. And then there is a tiny elite who is really rich – they own the world, they pull all the strings – bankers, hollywood studio owners/movie directors and media moguls and they come in all shades and ages. Your theory Rose is BS and makes no sense at all. The powerful and rich of today are the ones the promote the death… Read more »
Sorry for the mistakes – here is the corrected version: Never read bigger BS, sorry but I have to say it. The wealthiest people on earth are not older than middle aged. Most of the wealthiest people on earth today/now are very young. Today only sick idiots become rich and the sick idiots are in the fashion industry, music business, movie industry – rappers rapping about violence and murder, designers and models promoting death and movie/tv stars promoting filth and death and life with no morals – these people are among the wealthiest today and are mostly super young. And then there is a tiny elite who is sickeningly rich – they own the world, they pull all the strings – bankers, hollywood studio owners/movie directors and media moguls and they come in all shades and ages. Your theory Rose is BS and makes no sense at all. The powerful… Read more »

Those aren’t the richest people. You are mistaken. Those are the decoys. Music and movie stars are NOT the richest people. You are *meant* to consider them the elite (that is why they are pushed in your face), but the real elite stay out of the media eye. The richest families are not even listed on the Forbes list. I’m sorry, but you’ve fallen for a sham.

If you had gathered anything from this website (and I am very critical of this website) you should have at least gathered that such people are SERVANTS to the elite. Music, film, fashion, etc. stars are all servants which promote the elite message, but they themselves are just canaries in gilded cages.

What else should we expect from an elite/illuminati that want to eliminate 80 percent of the world’s population. They want all us slaves to get comfortable seeing people dead and dying, cause our loved ones may be next on their list.

That’s depressing.

Thanks VC – I appreciate you putting into condensed form this huge subject, and doing it so well.

I have two siblings who modelled professionally in the 90s. The stories they’ve shared (which caused them to leave that industry) reinforce dehumanization is what it’s all about.

Parents – don’t let your kids get into that scene. No amount of money or meaningless attention is worth it.

The rest of us should go out of our way to not support brands, stores, or companies using this type of imagery. Put our money where our mouths are.

A side note: The culture most obsessed with death, dying and the afterlife was ancient egypt. Home of the pyramids, mummies and the Book of the Dead (the oldest known tome of magical knowledge).
It is also the age of hermetic longing. All esoteric orders, rosicrucian, freemasons,…etc. claim to have access to their secrets and traditions.
By flooding the “fashion world” with the image of death, they try to emulate the mysteries of old.

Who knows… Maybe the old egyptians still rule our world.

Let’s add the love of Death in Middle Centuries.

The new movie ‘gods of Egypt’ looks like Illuminati gold mine. I also found it interesting shows like the Arrow and Flash are referencing back to Egyptian culture lately. They are also promoting a lot of dark, spiritual forces. It’s interesting how those shows started out fun an innocent and now have devolved into that realm…

Spot on.

Maybe death is being shown so much in fashion world wide because the world is obsessed with death, the dead and dying; I mean, the globe is lately literally filled with people who are clinically depressed, emotionally starved, frightened of everything, and totally obsessed with blood, guts, and their own death and dying. It’s disgusting and gross, but not surprising.

They are programming our psyche for death before killing us. This is why they are promoting the culture of Dehumanization.

I agree it is dehumanizing, debasing, and intentional. It is known, in the viewing of photos, vids, films, that while hetero men might want to do the woman, hetero women want to be the woman. The jarring conflicting image of sex and death combined is an ancient manipulation of human drives to produce a “split” or dissociation. We’re all MK’D.

It all ties in with the satanic agenda, and their obsession with pain death, and abuse of all kinds A skull is a decomposed human head. It is beyond me why people are so stupid to dress their children up like this. I grew up afraid of this type of thing .And rightly so. You can be sure that those in high up positions within Satanism are laughing at the stupidity of the little people. Especially when you consider how many of them are sacrificed every year. So, to the elite the skull represents, among other things , the expendability of us unimportant little creatures.

There are some Buddhist and Hindu traditions (admittedly, unusual, even among these religions) which suggest that moving past fear and disgust with these things is also a part of enlightenment. Tibetan Buddhists watch the corpses of their dearly departed being eaten by vultures. However, they were definitely not talking about THIS media joke…this is mere sugar-coating of the disgusting and fearful things.

That is not “moving past”, at all. “Moving past” would require no sugar, no gold, no beautiful models or other idealizations. It would require an honest assessment of these things for what they are. A skull is indeed a decomposed human head. The enlightenment they speak of would require one to *accept* that fact without using a “cheat”, which is no cheat at all.

tl;dr: It is not only anti-Christian, but it is also anti-Enlightenment to avoid the truth of the world.

Anything with “skulls” on it I think is just horrible. when I see those headphones with skulls on it, I just want to smash them. It’s sending a “death message” to those who even look at them.

I wonder if the people who wear them know there’s a subliminal message being sent to them while they listen through those headphones?

I used to look at those magazines when Richard Avedon was the photographer. Now I realize all this Death/Darkness/Satan stuff has been there all along. I’m so disappointed how all the Darkness has been around since before the 40s/50s/60s and I’m just beginning to see the Light. WOW!

I pray everyday . . .

A great in-depth study on fashion, advertising and the culture of a “beautiful death”. The glamourisation of dying young and leaving a “beautiful corpse” has now captivated the world. The skulls, skeletons and corpse colour is now chic.
The illuminati’s way of saying “Don’t be scared, dying is perfection, and natural”
What better way to cull the population. Give it glamour and the “thumbs up”.
As always VC, a great article.

All of this is so disturbing on such a basic level that it beggars belief that these concepts and associated imagery have found their way into mainstream media in such a casual way.

You know, what bothers me the most is that these people have turned fashion into a shallow, mass-producing industry, when it really is art that you can put on your body. Same goes with music, and dance and all the artistic aspects of this world. They’re obsessed with sexualizing everything and just destroying everything in this world. I’m so pissed off at them.

Me too.

Is this predictive programming? What they have in store for us? Or possibly glamorizing another one of their fetishes as demonstrated by Jimmy Saville? Our culture is just sick at this point, truly disturbed people involved in this mind-set. I think the controllers get a big kick out of tossing this trash in our faces, but then
the zombie brain-dead lap it up. Is that why the zombie movies kept coming out, the controllers telling us what so many have become: socially engineered golem.

In the jagged, lightless psychological realms of these sickos behind these images, lying in state is implied consent. “You can’t r**e the dead” is I’m sure the motto.

VC I think you should look into the rapper B.o.B’s Instagram and Twitter! He is exposing the music industry, cloning, Queen Elizabeth about the kids that went missing etc.! He is speaking out he says from experience not a conspiracy theorist his page is very interesting just like his new mixtape called FIRE dedicated to the evils in music industry … This is a line from one of his songs, the song is called “bend over” me with them conscious lyrics You sound just like the one percenters You must of did a bunch of acid Either that or you just f*****g with us You want to be a star, sell out concert tickets? A mansion and a Hollywood subdivision? You get the fame under one condition You get copied at the cloning center They kill ‘em with a common ending Overdose from a drug addiction Same story, same headline… Read more »
Fascinating article, thank you VC for sharing this. One thing the article might have also mentioned is the increase in celebrating Dia des las Meurtos (Mexican “Day of the Dead”) as an American holiday. Up until last year, I’d never heard of it, but this year my city (with a relatively small Latin demographic) threw a big celebration for it. One of my talents is designing and making handcrafted jewelry (CinnamonAndSilver). I am confronted by carved stone skull beads, metal skull beads, and things like that in bead catalogs. I always thought they were ugly, and just do not “get” this trend. Then again, I have seen death. My grandma and one of my babies each died before my eyes, and several funerals I’ve been to have had open caskets, so maybe I “get” death a little better than most? I dunno. And I LOVE classic Gothic literature. I’m even… Read more »

Another lyric from B.o.B’s mixtape

“That’s why they identify you as property, born into robbery, no Robin Hood, if satan had a house it would be in Hollywood, walking always the most difficult part, red carpet before the rituals start”

He is speaking out in most of his new songs, he produced his new album without a record label just to awaken his followers, a real eye opener! You should check it out

What tears my heart apart when it comes to fashion is the extreme torture and cruel deaths that billions of animals go through each year! I’m talking about the fur, wool, leather, silk, etc. industries. It’s crazy and heart breaking… So unfair and senseless!! Everyone should watch “Earthlings” on YouTube.

Notice the butterfly bracelet on the model from the first pic, the one lying on the bed

I tried 3 times to get into modeling, each time was just too creepy for me (10, 13, 17) at 17, I got tired of all these people handling me like a puppet, that I just quit, and hit the books, winning scholarships to school and eventually at an ivy (which ivy culture is a mess unto itself). But I couldn’t take being treated by puppet (& esp w/ ppl so brainless and perverse!)

Theses fashion people sell the same sad sick empty STD , models over &over& over again ?
There no love or soul or taste ? of what it is to be Human .
Apart of there main stream dead rags show ,
Keep it s as all out of Fashion so soon ? beside cost to much .

Make your own Fashion Thats true Fashion with class ?

The Lion of the mount

Evil does not mistake itself as being an “alternative goodness”. It knows itself for what it really is, contrary to popular belief. Evil knows that it is evil…. and likes it very much. The only thing is has yet to learn is that it will not defeat Original Creation.

They’re glorifying what serial killers feel. It’s disgusting.

As soon as I saw the headline, I thought of how it’s now in vogue to compliment someone’s fashion sense by saying that they “slayed” or “killed it.”

Tyra on ANTM often taught models to look like a doll. I couldn’t understand why, real models in fact look more interesting and beautiful than dolls. And better than dead bodies. So this culture of death is more about culture itself than about fashion and advertising. I bet advertising could work pretty good without death.

Maybe the culture of death is being cultivated by rulers and their wanna-be-army of greedy corrupted souls because it adds to the overall feeling of hopelessness, unhappiness, feeling of loss, powerlessness, maybe all things depressing, that are pushed in media outlets. To give humanity the idea that nothing they will ever do will be helping to survive or even reach their other goals. In times like that people tend to give away their urges to have children, to give jst the one example of effects.
Does that ring a bell?
Now, it’s time for a carrillon..

UK Punks in the 70s wore skulls as fashion for shock value like most of the clothes they wore. And it worked. But that effect faded away long ago. Now its all about the acceptance that we are all going to die so you better live your life right now. That’s a modern punk rock view on skulls. Some things symbolise different things to different people for sure. Remember heroin chic in the 90s? Models looking like they just overdosed on herion or about to overdose any day because they look so sickly. Glamorising a drug that kills people and celebrities very easily. Then add on the stigma of HIV and AIDS in the 90s. The fashion photography with these themes in mind are terrifying and disturbing. They’re are hard to look at. Drugs kill but everyone seems to be taking them. Seeing actors constantly smoking cigarettes in movies and… Read more »

All of this is easily explainable. As the elite are obsessed with reducing the population to no more than 500M they are going to need to kill off most of us. For us to go along with our own deaths they have to psychologically condition us. What you describe is simply part of the conditioning process. This is also why the have “death education” in the schools even though they KNOW it greatly increases the suicide rate of the students. See also http://www.naturalnews.com/052796_Ebola_population_control_genocide.html .

200 years ago and ever since before then people saw death everyday like public executions and plagues. Violence and cruel punishments were a part of life. And it’s still in the human psyche. Humans still need to see and experience death and violence, some part of us that still needs to be feed. But we have disassociated from it by keeping it at a distance by only watching on TV, film and the Internet. Never up front and personal. Fashion can take it a step further by making skulls, and such, look cartoon like or fake by covering them in rhinestones or colouring them pink. I wear skulls on my clothing all the time. Potential death is very real me. I have major depression and suicidal thoughts as part of that. I’m forced to think about my own death every day. I think about it on many levels but what… Read more »

I have read the whole article..maybe its because englisch is Not my mothertongue- but I think this Artikel explains very well the artistic Intention behinde this shoots…I find it very plausible and Not conspirical…dont get ne wrong.i believe that there are many things going wrong in media..but the Display of death have also an artistisc and social reason i think.

Glad I’m not in the Fashion Industry or famous. 🙂

Excellent article. Thank you.

Interestingly, aside from the feel of the fabric or the occasional approving glance in the mirror, fashion is rarely to be enjoyed by the wearer.
I would wager the models in these photos garner zero thrill from donning these outfits, only the response of others is the measure of satisfaction.
Fashion’s purpose is to force effect on the observer, not the wearer.

Great article. Lots of insights but I get the sense the author presents death-as-fashion as a phenomena from the masses up to the style designers. IMO, fashion is a dictated top down. Fashion is a consumer enter-train-ment, like Hollywood films and pop music. My take is that it is social psycho-drama, masonic mystery school schlock shock. It’s one thing to for an individual to be aware of one’s mortality, but for the masses?

Looks as if the designers mind and interests are engaged in morbidity, depression and hopelessness. Satan is the author of this type of noncreative insanity. It does not take a saint to know that this is (SICK ART). YES SOMEBODY IS SICK. SATAN comes to steal, kill and destroy. He has many footholds and camps in the entertainment and fashion industry and FOR SOME reason he thinks its a good to SEASON to expose himself to the world in every form. I GUESS NEXT THAT HE WILL SHOW UP IN HUMAN FORM TO SELL HIMSELF OFF AS THE CHRIST.
Jesus said that ” I came that they may have life and that more abundantly:
Father we pray for the fashion world. We pray that they may use their gifts and talents that you gave them to promote positive and unique designs..

“It is a complex feat to grab the attention of sophisticated consumers who ‘buy’ fashion as an expression of self and who are bombarded with all matter of advertising messages,…”, you mean like “death”? and is “sophisticated” supposed to be the operative term for “stupid”, because I would have believed that statement more. I swear I feel like I was getting stupider by the minute reading this article. VC thank you for continuing to expose idiots who deserve to be ridiculed.

It’s a damn shame that the queen b***h Naomi Campbell’s still alive.

I agree that this woman is a queen b***h but i disagree with you saying that phrase.You should not wish on anyone’s death,you don’t have the right to decide this.Please let’s be more rational.